The Night Sky This Month

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Ian Morison tells you what can be seen in the night sky this month.
Updated: 5 hours 40 min ago

The night sky for January 2019

Wed, 16/01/2019 - 10:00
Northern Hemisphere

The Night Sky

Northern Hemisphere

Ian Morison tells us what we can see in the northern hemisphere's night sky during January 2019.

  • Note the Total Eclipse of the Moon on the morning of January 21stThe Planets
    • Jupiter.Jupiter starts the month rising around 5 a.m., and brightens from magnitude -1.9 to -1.9 as the month progresses whilst its angular size increases slightly from 31.8 to 33.6 arc seconds. The highlights show how it combines with Venus to give us some wonderful views in the East before dawn.

    • Saturn.Saturn passes behind the Sun on the 2nd of January so will not be visible in the pre-dawn eastern sky until around the third week of the month shining with a magnitude of +0.6. With a disk of ~15 arc seconds across and with rings spanning over twice this, it will rise one and a half hours before the Sun by month's end.

    • Mercury.Mercury might just be glimpsed in the first few days of the month very low in the southeast just before sunrise shining at magnitude -0.4. Binoculars could well be needed as this reduces the background glare, but please do not use them after the Sun has risen.

    • Mars.Mars, though fading from +0.5 to +0.9 magnitudes during the month remains prominent in the southern sky after sunset at an elevation of ~36 degrees, increasing to 41 degrees during January as it moves north-eastwards across the constellation of Pisces. (If only it could have been at this elevation when at closest approach last year!) Its angular size falls from 7.5 arc seconds to 6 arc seconds during the month so one will not be able to spot any details on its salmon-pink surface.

    • Venus.Venus reaches greatest elongation west some 47 degrees away from the Sun on January 6th so dominates the eastern sky rising some 3 hours before the Sun. It begins January with a dazzling magnitude of -4.6. Its angular size reduces from 26.3 to 19.4 arc seconds during the month as it moves away from the Earth but, at the same time, the percentage illuminated disk (its phase) increases from 47% to 62% - which is why the brightness only reduces from -4.6 to -4.3 magnitudes. See the highlight above when it lies close to Jupiter.

    • Highlights
    • January 3rd - before dawn: Jupiter below a very thin crescent Moon.
    • Around the 6th of January (with no Moon in the sky): find M31 - The Andromeda Galaxy - and perhaps M33 in Triangulum.Around new Moon (6th Jan) - and away from towns and cities - you may also be able to spot M33, the third largest galaxy after M31 and our own galaxy in our Local Group of galaxies. It is a face on spiral and its surface brightness is pretty low so a dark, transparent sky will be needed to spot it using binoculars (8x40 or, preferably, 10x50). Follow the two stars back from M31 and continue in the same direction sweeping slowly as you go. It looks like a piece of tissue paper stuck on the sky just a bit brighter than the sky background. Good Hunting!

    • January12th - evening: Mars above a waxing Moon.Looking south in the evening if clear, Mars will be seen lying above a waxing crescent Moon.

    • January 21st - a Total Eclipse of the Moon.If clear in the hours before dawn, we should be able to see a Total Eclipse of the Moon as it moves through the Earth's shadow at times indicated on the chart. It will be fully eclipsed from 04:41 to 05:43. A nice photo opportunity.

    • January 31st - just before dawn: a thin crescent Moon lies between Jupiter and Venus.If clear just before dawn, and given a low horizon towards the southeast, one should be able to see a thin waning crescent Moon lying between Jupiter (on its right) and Venus shining brightly to its left. A nice photo opportunity.

    • January 13th and 26th evening: The Hyginus Rille.

    • Southern Hemisphere

      Haritina Mogosanu and Samuel Leske tell us what we can see in the southern hemisphere's night sky during January 2019.

    • The Shining Ones.
    • Kia Ora from New Zealand.Hi everyone, We are here at Space Place at Carter Observatory holding Galactic Conversations from the heart of Wellington in the Southern Hemisphere, my favourite place to be, with the music of the amazing Rhian Sheehan, our Wellingtonian star composer, and we are Haritina MogoČ™anu and Samuel Leske. Space Place is our historical astronomy icon here in New Zealand and we are located right at the heart of our capital city. And we are so lucky to be among the capital cities in the world from where you can still see the Milky Way.

    • Summary.As for deep sky objects, the month is perfect for observing Orion and some of the objects from the Northern Hemisphere that sit below Orion in the Southern Sky, such as the fabulous Rosette Nebula and the elusive M74. Back to the south celestial region, we can still see the Magellanic Clouds and some awesome circumpolar objects, check out our videos on how to find them on Milky-Way. And did you know that this time of the year you can see the brightest, second brightest and third brightest star in the sky from here from Wellington? If you have a solar telescope you can admire a very quiet Sun. Almost no spots adorn the Sun but we will be watching it closely to see if any appear. (Do NOT look at the sun with a telescope, binoculars or even the naked eye without protection!) Watch for the Moon, it new on the first Sunday of the month, which means that's a good week for deep sky observations, and full on the third week, the 21st of January.

    • You must wake up very early in the morning to see the other planets, which are mostly in the morning sky, so if you're a morning person then you're in for a show. Venus, Jupiter and Mercury are all visible in the morning sky, as well as the Moon in the first week of the Month and Saturn at the end of the month. You can wake up as early as 3:30 for Venus, and Jupiter is rising up every morning earlier so it catches up with Venus around the 22nd when they will rise together and then Jupiter will move higher than Venus. Saturn will be rising around 4:30 in the morning at the end of the month. So who said the sky is only for the night owls? But what is there left for the night owls if everything is in the morning sky?

    • Planets. Mars is still in the evening sky although we will need to wait until 9 PM when the Sun sets and then look northwest. Mars is still bright so it should be easy to spot. Unseen to the naked eye, to the left of Mars is Neptune and to the right is Uranus. Uranus is 19 AU from the Sun, which is 162 light minutes away. Although you can see Uranus, which has a visual magnitude of 5.8 with the naked eye from a very dark place, for Neptune you will definitely need a telescope. Both are beautiful with a bluish tint.

    • Bright Stars. So because this time of the year there are many distinctive bright stars in the night sky, I call it the season of the shining ones.

    • Constellations. So not only there are pans and pots in the Southern Sky but there are also crosses. There's the Southern Cross, the Diamond Cross and the False Cross, and these are like official asterisms. That is if you ignore the fact that every combination of four stars can look like a cross. The great thing about them is that they are teeming with amazing deep sky objects. Such is the very famous Jewel Box open cluster near the Southern Cross. Two favourites of ours are the star clusters Omicron Velorum and NGC 2516 in the False Cross region, NGC 2516 is next Avior and Omicron Velorum is next to the star Delta Velorum.

    • Clusters.And also remember that it doesn't really matter what you call the stars as long as you can remember where they are.

    • May you enjoy the beginning of another happy rotation around the sun! Thank you and Clear skies from Wellington!

  • The night sky for December 2018

    Fri, 07/12/2018 - 09:00
    Northern Hemisphere

    Ian Morison tells us what we can see in the Northern Hemisphere night sky during December 2018.

    The Planets

    • Jupiter - Jupiter passed behind the Sun on November 26th and will appear low in the eastern pre-dawn sky around the 12th of the month. It will have a magnitude of ~-1.8 and a disk ~32 arc seconds across. It is not a good month to observe Jupiter due to its low elevation, but do see the 'highlight' above.

    • Saturn - Saturn might just be glimpsed in the first few days of December very low in the southwest around 16:45 but soon disappears into the Sun's glare as it moves towards superior conjunction on January 2nd. It will have a disk of ~15 arc seconds and a magnitude of +0.5.

    • Mercury - Mercury passed between us and the Sun (inferior conjunction) on the 27th of November but appears in the pre-dawn sky around the 6th of the month. It will then have a magnitude of +0.5 which increases to magnitude 0 by the 8th. Mercury reaches its greatest elongation (west) of the Sun on the 16th, when 21 degrees away and rising over an hour and a half before it when it is ~60% lit. As the morning ecliptic is at a steep angle to the horizon at this time of the year, this is an excellent apparition. Do not miss (when hopefully clear) its conjunction with Jupiter as described above.

    • Mars - Mars, though fading from magnitude -0.0 to +0.4 during the month remains prominent in the southern sky as it starts the month at an elevation of 27 degrees in Aquarius. It will lie due south around 6 pm. As the month progresses, it moves eastwards into Pisces on the 21st; slightly higher in elevation at ~32 degrees when due south around 5:30 pm. Its angular size falls from 9.3 arc seconds to 7.5 arc seconds during the month so it will become harder to spot any details, such as Syrtis Major, on its salmon-pink surface.

    • Venus - Venus begins December at an elevation of ~32 degrees and with a dazzling magnitude of -4.9. Its angular size reduces from 40.7 to 26.6 arc seconds during the month as it moves away from the Earth but, at the same time, the percentage illuminated disk (its phase) increases from 26% to 47% - which is why the brightness only reduces from -4.9 to -4.6 magnitudes. It will reach greatest elongation from the Sun on January 6th.

    • Highlights
    • Comet46P/Wirtanen rises high in the sky and may be visible to the unaided eye. This month we have a chance of seeing a comet with our unaided eyes as it could reach magnitude +3. The chart shows its position during the month as it rises above the southern horizon through Taurus and Auriga. On the night of the 16/17th December it will pass between the Pleaides and Hyades clusters in Taurus - making a wonderful imaging opportunity if clear. Then, on the night of the 24th, it will lie very close to Capella in Auriga (but sadly, the Moon will then be full).

    • At closest approach on the night of December 16th it will be only 30 times further than the Moon. Then its coma should be about 1 km in size and span one degree across. The waxing gibbous Moon will hinder our view early on that night but will set at 1 am, so it is worth staying up late if it is clear!

    • December 3rd - before dawn: Venus below a very thin crescent Moon. Looking southeast before dawn one should, if clear, be able to easily spot brilliant Venus lying below a very thin crescent Moon. Spica is over to the right of Venus making a nice photo opportunity.

    • December 7th - 1 hour after sunset: A very close conjunction of Mars and Neptune. Looking south after sunset one should, if clear, be easily able to spot Mars. But when it gets fully dark, with binoculars or a small telescope, Neptune should appear just down to its lower right. A great opportunity to find Neptune - let's hope it is clear!

    • December 14th - after sunset: Mars will lie 4 degrees above the First Quarter Moon. Looking south after sunset one should, if clear, be able to spot Mars lying about 4 degrees above the First Quarter Moon making a nice photo opportunity.

    • December 14th and 15th after midnight: the Geminid Meteor Shower. The early mornings of December 14th and 15th will give us the chance, if clear, of observing the peak of the Geminid meteor shower. The Moon is at First Quarter and will set around 11 pm so, when Gemini is highest in the sky, its light will not hinder our view. The Geminids can often produce near-fireballs and so the shower is well worth observing if it is clear. An observing location well away from towns or cities will pay dividends. The relatively slow moving meteors arise from debris released from the asteroid 3200 Phaethon. This is unusual, as most meteor showers come from comets. The radiant - where the meteors appear to come from - is close to the bright star Castor in the constellation Gemini as shown on the chart. If it is clear it will be cold - so wrap up well, wear a woolly hat and have some hot drinks with you.

    • December 21st - just before dawn: Jupiter and Mercury together with Venus above. If clear just before dawn, and given a low horizon towards the east, one should be able to see Mercury lying a little above Jupiter making it appearance in a new apparition. Venus will be shining brightly up to their right. A nice photo opportunity.

    • December 22nd/23rd - late evenings: the Ursid Meteor Shower. The late evenings of the 22nd and 23rd of December are when the Ursid meteor shower will be at its best - though the peak rate of ~10-15 meteors per hour is not that great. Sadly, this year Full Moon is on the 21st, so its light will greatly hinder our view. The radiant lies close to the star Kochab in Ursa Minor (hence their name), so look northwards at a high elevation. Occasionally, there can be a far higher rate so it is worth having a look should it be clear.

    • December 16th (late night) and 17th: Two Great Lunar Craters. This is a great night to observe two of the greatest craters on the Moon, Tycho and Copernicus, as the terminator is nearby. Tycho is towards the bottom of Moon in a densely cratered area called the Southern Lunar Highlands. It is a relatively young crater which is about 108 million years old. It is interesting in that it is thought to have been formed by the impact of one of the remnents of an asteroid that gave rise to the asteroid Baptistina. Another asteroid originating from the same breakup may well have caused the Chicxulub crater 65 million years ago. It has a diameter of 85 km and is nearly 5 km deep. At full Moon - seen in the image below - the rays of material that were ejected when it was formed can be see arcing across the surface. Copernicus is about 800 million years old and lies in the eastern Oceanus Procellarum beyond the end of the Apennine Mountains. It is 93 km wide and nearly 4 km deep and is a clasic "terraced" crater. Both can be seen with binoculars.

    Haritina Mogosanu from the Carter Science Centre in New Zealand speaks about the Southern Hemisphere night sky during December 2018.

  • Introduction - Kia Ora from New Zealand, here at Space Place at Carter Observatory in the heart of Wellington in the Southern Hemisphere, Haritina Mogosanu and Samuel Leske are your hosts for December 2018.

  • Space Place - Space Place is one of the historical icons of New Zealand in terms of astronomy, located at the heart of our capital city. There's not many capital cities where the Milky Way is visible on a dark night so we're very lucky in Wellington to have a city not totally given over to light pollution.

  • We have amazing historical telescopes, a 23 cm Cooke built in 1867 that we use for public viewing and we also have a retro Boller and Chivens 16". The Cooke has quite a story behind it and how it got to New Zealand and eventually how it ended up in Wellington. It has been a very important telescope for research including being used to photograph Halley's Comet in 1910.

    Also on display is a James Short telescope. We only look at this one - and not through, it's locked in the displays. It's a very important telescope that we believe came here with Captain Cook and it was donated by Adam Read; he is the son of Peter Read, the creator and presenter of the New Zealand's Night Sky TV show in the 1960s.

    We also have a beautiful planetarium where I spend a lot of my time.

    If you ever wish to find us, Space Place is at the top of the botanical gardens looking out to the harbour, and surrounded by flowers and New Zealand birds that are amazing so you can imagine the views, and the sound, both day and night. We actually have a bunch of New Zealand owls in a tree right in the front of us, they are called morepork and we can always hear them when we look through the telescopes.

  • Observing in December - We have some instructions for you as to what to do with the December night sky. For those of us who don't read the instructions, we just have some amazing stuff that we wish to share and those who do neither instructions nor stories, here's the gossip.

  • Did you know there's going to be a comet in the December night sky? How about a Meteor Shower? And a Full Moon? And the Summer Solstice?

    And did you know that this Christmas we celebrate 50 years since we went around the Moon? Also in December, the Americans are aiming to land a probe on an asteroid to get a sample and, - my favourite - someone calculated all the starlight that adds up in the Universe, so starting this month we will be fully informed about how many photons are reaching Earth, since the dawn of time, or so they say.

  • Here is what you need to do. Look for the comet around the 16th of December. It should appear on the Eastern horizon just in between the Pleiades and the Hyades. Perhaps take a picture of it too, just because you can, it's going to be really bright. Keep an eye on our site for instructions for how to do that if you need help.

  • Look for the meteor shower anytime between 7 and 17 of December (that is, yes you're right almost in the same time as the comet.) It's the Geminids so the radiant (the point in the sky that seems to "rain stars") is in the constellation Gemini.

  • Moon - With the full Moon, - now depends if you are into moonlight or not. I'm not, it casts too much light and I cannot see the stars properly, so I'm trying to avoid it as much as I can. The good news is that the first two weeks are good for observing, since the New Moon will be on the 7th of December. The awesome thing is that this month's full Moon will coincide with the Apollo 8's 50 years around the Moon celebration.

  • Shortest Night - Just a few days before that, at 11:23 AM on Saturday 22 December, Earth will be at its maximum tilt towards the Sun. What does it mean for us? Well, it will be the shortest night and with the Moon almost full, best thing we can do is just celebrate light. Speaking of which, our Sun went stealth, it's in a minimum of a minimum but just because we can't see any spots it doesn't mean there's nothing to learn about it. The Parker solar probe has now joined the rest of the successful missions out there and we are looking forward to some good data from it.

  • Comet Party - Since December is the month of major celebrations, we think a star party might be in order. If you have never been to one, here's a great opportunity. It could be a Moon party if it's around Christmas or else a star party could work around the 7th of December more or less a few days.

  • Now the trick is the night is extremely short - we wanted to photograph 47 Tucanae the other day and had to wait until 9:22 pm and even then there wasn't good enough for proper imaging, only for lining up. So your efforts might be best conserved to try and find the comet, here's a comet party, we don't get these too often and I do remember a few years ago a comet appeared in the New Zealand Sky around this time. It was fun and it wasn't as bright as this one, we needed telescopes then to see it. This one is a naked eye comet.

    So a comet-party seems like a good idea. The best time to look at it is just after sunset and on the 16th of December will have the magnitude of approximately 3. What does that mean? It means we can see it with the naked eye.

    Have you ever tried to pronounce a comet's name? 46/P Wirtanen (go pronounce that in one word!) P stands for periodic and 46 is that it's the 46th to be discovered (in case you were wondering, the first ever was Halley's comet). Wirtanen will arrive from the direction of Cetus / Eridani and is very tiny. Only 1.2 km in diameter, Wirtanen has a short period too, 5.4 years.

    What's cool is that this comet was the original target for ESA's Rosetta spacecraft but the launch window was missed so they sent the probe to another comet with an even better name (just because is longer and harder to pronounce) 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

    What's a magnitude 3? If you ever managed to spot the famous galaxy Andromeda, then you have the answer. Something that looks like Andromeda (3.4).

    Now that you know where to look, and what you might find, the comet can be your centrepiece for the comet-party. But nothing says that you should not look at the stars and deep sky objects.

  • Star Party (and Deep Sky Objects) - New Zealand is in a great spot for observing the night sky, and we, of course, get the whole Southern Sky but also a reasonable chunk of the Northern Sky as well. We can't see the stalwarts of the Northern Sky such as the Big Dipper and there's no taking in the beautiful face on spirals of M51, the Whirlpool Galaxy, or M101 the Pinwheel Galaxy.

  • At this time of the year the nights are getting shorter and shorter and the telescopes of the early evening are being swapped with BBQs and the smell of lithium grease is replaced with the smell of burnt sausages. But while some of our fellow Wellingtonians are going to bed or spinning embellished stories around the embers of their BBQ we are cracking open the Space Place Domes and collecting some ancient photons.

    Some favorites of mine are visible in the night sky and the early part of the month will be ideal to try and see them given the Moon will be well hidden. The first of these is M74 and unfortunately, despite all of the aperture we have available at Space Place, we are not going to see this one visually because of it's very low surface brightness. We'll have to borrow the van and take the portable Meade over the hill to the very dark skies of the Wairarapa to see this beautiful face on spiral. Luckily it's not all bad for galaxy hunting in December as not too far from M74 is the bright galaxy of M77 - also known as Cetus A. This one is easy to spot even from central Wellington. We won't see the faint outer regions of the spiral arms but the bright active core is very visible and at 33 Million light years distant the photons from this object have spent a long time making their way to Wellington.

    Despite not having M51 and M101 to look at, we do have some very impressive galaxies in the Southern Sky. One of these is NGC 253 - also known as the Sculptor Galaxy. This is large spiral galaxy at an angle to us so it looks like an elongated ellipse. It's relatively bright and easy to spot it you've got plenty of aperture. You'll have to put your light bucket on the back of your scooter and head to a dark sky location to make out much detail, but if you do, you'll be in for a treat as you take in the complex shapes and clumps of detail visible on the disk. Sculptor is about 12 million light years away appears about 27 arcminutes long so is quite big.

    Quite close to Sculptor is the tight spiral galaxy known as NGC 300. This is a great galaxy to view as it's quite close at only 6.6 million light years - for Northern Sky observers it's a bit like a mini M33. Viewing from Wellington will show the bright core but you'll have to head to the hills to get any detail out of the spiral arms. Keen astrophotographers will have a better time in Wellington as this galaxy is bright enough to burn through the light pollution and produce quite a nice picture.

    The problem with viewing galaxies is that they don't really look anything like the beautiful photographs people take. They are often just a faint gray smudge in the eyepiece and you have to use your best visual observing skills to get any detail out of what you're looking at. This is when it's great to swing the telescope around to the majestic brilliance of the likes of the Tarantula Nebula. This gives you a picture in the eyepiece very similar to what photographers capture, just not in colour. This big giant bright complex of gas clouds and massive stars looks a bit like a spider, hence its name and it is a must see of the Southern Sky and is almost compulsory viewing on any observing evening.

  • Moon Party - If all the above fails, you could always have a Moon Party.

  • That could be really spectacular since exactly 50 years ago the first people orbited around the Moon, the astronauts of Apollo 8. Some amazing things happened during that flight including taking the picture that changed the world, Earth rise. One little picture is credited as the most important legacy of the Apollo programme, showing Earth half hanging in shadow and suspended in the middle of nothing at all. Humans saw their planet for the first time as a whole world, a small, blue, finite globe in the distance. It's the image that is credited with starting the environmental movement and has been used as a hopeful symbol of global unity. So we think if you're going to have a Moon Party this December it's going to be pretty cool. Again, keep an eye on our website, as we will post some more content there.

  • Mars - There's one more thing I want to talk about, Mars.

  • Mars will always have a special place in my heart and now has a new resident, InSight. InSight was the mission that brought the first cubesats to Mars and now sits happily on the red planet stretching its arms. Literally.

    We wish you happy hunting for comets and galaxies this month, and if all that doesn't work then grab yourself a couple of craters on the Moon.

  • Clear skies from Haritina and Sam here at Space Place at Carter Observatory in Wellington New Zealand, and see you next year!

  • The night sky for November 2018

    Fri, 09/11/2018 - 11:00
    Northern Hemisphere

    Ian Morison tells us what we can see in the Northern Hemisphere night sky during November 2018.

    The Planets

    • Jupiter - Jupiter is now moving towards its superior conjunction behind the Sun on November 26th and will not be visible this month.

    • Saturn - Saturn will be visible in the southwest at an elevation of ~11 degrees after sunset at the beginning of November but disappears into the Sun's glare by the end of the month. Its disk has an angular size of 15.7 arc seconds falling to 15.2 during the month whilst its brightness increases slightly from +0.5 to +0.6 magnitudes as the month progresses. The rings were at their widest last year but are still, at 24 degrees to the line of sight, well open and spanning ~2.5 times the size of Saturn's globe. Saturn is now moving westwards over the 'teapot' of Sagittarius to the left of M8, the Lagoon Nebula, and M20, the Trifid Nebula. Sadly, atmospheric dispersion will greatly hinder our view.

    • Mercury - Mercury reaches its greatest elongation east from the Sun on November 6th but, as the angle of the ecliptic to the horizon in the evening is shallow at this time of the year, it will be lost in the Sun's glare as it moves towards inferior conjunction (between us and the Sun) on the 27th of the month.

    • Mars.Though fading from magnitude -0.6 to -0.1, Mars actually becomes more prominent in the southern sky after sunset as it climbs higher in elevation from ~17 degrees at the start of the month to ~27 degrees by month's end. Its angular size is 11.9 arc seconds at the start of the month falling to 9.3 arc seconds by its end. Moving from Capricornus into Aquarius on November 11th, it should still just be possible with a small to medium sized telescope to spot details, such as Syrtis Major, on its salmon-pink surface.

    • Venus - Venus passed between us and the Sun (inferior conjunction) on October 26th and can be seen from around the 8th of this month in the east before sunrise. As, at this time of the year, the ecliptic at dawn has a steep angle to the horizon it rapidly increases in elevation as November progresses and will have an elevation of ~20 degrees before sunrise by month's end. The planet brightens from -4.6 to a dazzling -4.9 magnitudes during November making it dominate the pre-dawn eastern sky. Its angular size reduces from 60.6 to 41.4 arc seconds during the month as it moves away from the Earth but at the same time the percentage illuminated disk (its phase) increases from 1% to 25% - which is why the brightness actually increases.

    • Highlights
    • November - still a good month to observe Neptune and Uranus with a small telescope. Neptune came into opposition - when it is nearest the Earth - on the 7th of September, so will still be well placed to spot this month. Its magnitude is +7.9 so Neptune, with a disk just 2.3 arc seconds across, is easily spotted in binoculars lying in the constellation Aquarius as shown on the charts. It rises to an elevation of ~27 degrees when due south. Given a telescope of 8 inches or greater aperture and a dark (around the 7th) transparent night it should even be possible to spot its moon Triton.

    • Uranus reached opposition on October 23rd and so is visible all night. It will be highest in the sky in the south around midnight shining at magnitude 5.7 and with a disk 3.7 arc seconds across. It lies in Pisces, one degree and 18 arc minutes up to the right of Omicron Pisces as shown in the accompanying chart. Its turquoise green colour should be seen in a small telescope and it will be easily spotted in binoculars.

    • Around the 7th of November (with no Moon in the sky): find M31 - The Andromeda Galaxy - and perhaps M33 in Triangulum. In the evening, the galaxy M31 in Andromeda is visible in the south. The chart provides two ways of finding it:

    • 1) Find the square of Pegasus. Start at the top left star of the square - Alpha Andromedae - and move two stars to the left and up a bit. Then turn 90 degrees to the right, move up to one reasonably bright star and continue a similar distance in the same direction. You should easily spot M31 with binoculars and, if there is a dark sky, you can even see it with your unaided eye. The photons that are falling on your retina left Andromeda well over two million years ago!

      2) You can also find M31 by following the 'arrow' made by the three rightmost bright stars of Cassiopeia down to the lower right as shown on the chart.

      Around new Moon (7th November) - and away from towns and cities - you may also be able to spot M33, the third largest galaxy after M31 and our own galaxy in our Local Group of galaxies. It is a face on spiral and its surface brightness is pretty low so a dark, transparent sky will be needed to spot it using binoculars (8x40 or, preferably, 10x50). Follow the two stars back from M31 and continue in the same direction sweeping slowly as you go. It looks like a piece of tissue paper stuck on the sky just a bit brighter than the sky background. Good Hunting!

    • November early mornings: November Meteors. In the hours before dawn, November gives us a chance to observe meteors from two showers. The first that it is thought might produce some bright events is the Northern Taurids shower which has a broad peak of around 10 days but normally gives relatively few meteors per hour. The peak is around the 10th of November, just after new Moon, so its light will not intrude. The meteors arise from comet 2P/Encke. Its tail is especially rich in large particles and, this year, we may pass through a relatively rich band so it is possible that a number of fireballs might be observed!

    • The better known November shower is the Leonids which peak on the night of the 17th/18th of the month. The Moon is just after first quarter so, before it sets, its light will hinder our view somewhat. As one might expect, the shower's radiant lies within the sickle of Leo and meteors could be spotted from the 15th to the 20th of the month. The Leonids enter the atmosphere at ~71 km/sec and this makes them somewhat challenging to photograph but it is worth trying as one might just capture a bright fireball. Up to 15 meteors an hour could be observed if near the zenith. The Leonids are famous because every 33 years a meteor storm might be observed when the parent comet, 55P/Temple-Tuttle passes close to the Sun. In 1999, 3,000 meteors were observed per hour but we are now halfway between these impressive events hence with a far lower expected rate.

    • November - evening: find the 'Coathanger'. Looking upwards after dark high in the south-west you should spot the three stars making up the 'Summer Triangle'. The lowest is Altair in Aquilla, up to its right is Vega in Lyra and over to its left is Deneb in Cygnus. With binoculars sweep upwards about one third of the way from Altair towards Vega. You should spot a nice asterism, formally 'Brocchi's Cluster' but usually called the Coathanger. It is formed of a straight line of six stars below which is a 'hook' of four stars. A pretty object!

    • November - late evening: Find the asteroid Juno in Eridanus. Asteroid 3, Juno, makes its closest approach to Earth on November 16th/17th moving southwards in the constellation Eridanus as shown on the chart. On the first of November, looking southeast at ~11 pm it will have an elevation of 27 degrees and a magnitude of 7.58 and lie just above the 5.2 magnitude star 35 Eridani - so helping one to find it with binoculars. On the 17th, with a magnitude of 7.46, it will lie just down to the right of the 4.7th magnitude star 32 Eridani - so, again, helping one to find it with binoculars. Continuing its southwards motion, it will lie just above 22 Eridani (magnitude 5.5) on the last day of the month having a magnitude again of 7.58.

    • November 4th - 1 hour after sunset: Mars close to Delta Capricornus. Looking South Southeast after sunset one should, if clear, be able to spot Mars less than 1 degree up and to the right of the 3rd magnitude eclipsing binary star system Deneb Algedi (Delta Capricornus - 49 Capricornus).

    • November 11th - after sunset: Saturn below a thin crescent Moon. Given a low horizon towards the Southwest, and if clear, a very nice photo opportunity will arise with Saturn lying just a little to the lower right of a thin crescent Moon, four days after new.

    • November 16th - after sunset: Mars close to the Moon. After sunset on the 16th, Mars will be seen over to the right of the Moon, just after first quarter.

    • November 17th - before dawn: Venus and Spica. If clear, and given a low eastern horizon, Venus (magnitude -4.56) will be seen just one and a half degrees to the lower left of Spica (magnitude 0.95) in Virgo.

    • Hyginus Crater and Rille. For some time a debate raged as to whether the craters on the Moon were caused by impacts or volcanic activity. We now know that virtually all were caused by impact, but it is thought that the Hyginus crater that lies at the centre of the Hyginus Rille may well be volcanic in origin. It is an 11 km wide rimless pit - in contrast to impact craters which have raised rims - and its close association with the rille of the same name associates it with internal lunar events. It can quite easily be seen to be surrounded by dark material. It is thought that an explosive release of dust and gas created a vacant space below so that the overlying surface collapsed into it so forming the crater.

    Haritina Mogosanu from the Carter Science Centre in New Zealand speaks about the Southern Hemisphere night sky during November 2018.

    • Introduction. My name is Haritina Mogosanu and I am your starryteller from Space Place at Carter Observatory in Wellington New Zealand. November is my favourite month of the year. The name November comes from Latin, meaning the ninth. In ancient times, it was the ninth month from the beginning of the year, in March.

    • Stars and Constellations. Looking towards the southern horizon you should be able to see these asterisms on:

    • November 1st at 10:30 PM NZDT

      November 15 at 9:30 PM NZDT

      December 1st at 8:30 PM NZDT

      Three Royal Stars hang across the evening sky of November: Aldebaran in Taurus, Fomalhaut in Piscis Austrinus and Antares in Scorpius. According to French astronomer Camille Flammarion, the royal stars were the ancient guardians of the sky in ancient Persia. It is believed that the sky was divided into four districts each guarded by one of the four Royal Stars.

      My favourite of them has always been Fomalhaut (Haftorang/Hastorang) the Watcher of the South. Back in the Northern Hemisphere, Fomalhaut was the southernmost significant star that I could see and we would always look at it as the secret pointer to the South. The rumours were not far off as Fomalhaut, Achernar and Canopus are almost in a straight line and if you can find Achernar you can always find the South easily.

      The home-constellation of Fomalhaut is Piscis Austrinus, south of Capricornus and Aquarius, which is maybe why one of its names was Piscis Capricorni (Goat's horn fish). Another name is Piscis Solitarius - the lonely fish. Though here in New Zealand we do have The Chocolate Fish that also comes wrapped individually, I wish we could just rename the constellation to that, for obvious reasons. And just saying, if you never had chocolate fish from New Zealand you never lived!

      The lonely fish drinks all the water from Aquarius's stream, says Richard Allen quoting the poets Virgilius and Ovidius who wrote that in their verses a few thousand years ago. Allen also mentions a translation inscribed in a 1340 manuscript almanac naming the constellation 'Os Piscis Meridiani', where meridional means southern of course, so just another synonym of Austrinus. According to Ian Ridpath, Eratosthenes called this the Great Fish and said that it was the parent of the two smaller fish of the zodiacal constellation Pisces (also known as "The Fish").

      Today, Fomalhaut is the eye of the southern (chocolate) fish although, adding to the confusion, its original Arabic name "Fum al Hut" was translated as the mouth of the fish. However, just to clarify things, it seems that the Arabs' called it "the first frog" which last time I checked was not a fish.

      Because it's the brightest star in a part of the sky that contains mostly faint stars it was used in navigation just like Achernar. A triple system, Fomalhaut is about 25 light-years from Earth and In 2008, it became the first star with an extrasolar planet candidate (Fomalhaut b) imaged at visible wavelengths.

    • Eastern Sky. Back to the Eastern Sky, this time of the year, the Pleiades are visible again on the horizon. Harbingers for Halloween in the northern hemisphere where now skies are grey and ravens await for the first snows, for Maori, the Pleiades are now harbingers of summer. Together with the Hyades they make the wake and feathers from the Great Canoe (Waka) of Tama Rereti.

    • November is the month when Milky Way surrounds the horizon like an ocean and the Great Waka was used by Maori to mark the arrival of the warm season when it was safe to travel the ocean. Tama Rereti's Waka placed the stars in the sky and now lies moored in the wake of the Milky Way.

      Scorpius is Tauihu, the prow, floating low on the western horizon. Due south sits Te Punga, the anchor (the Southern Cross), with its rope, Te Taura, which is represented by the Pointers (Beta and Alpha Centauri). The latter is actually a multiple star system that holds our closest solar neighbour, the red dwarf Proxima Centauri, at 4.25 light years from Earth.

      The sails of Tama Rereti's canoe are Achernar and the beautiful southern dwarf galaxies the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC and LMC). Canopus/Atutahi is the paramount chief of the skies at vigil in the waka. A source of X-rays and the most luminous close star at 310 light years from the Sun, Canopus is used for navigation by all spacecraft that employ star tracker devices, which determine the orientation (or attitude) of the spacecraft with respect to that star. Te Taurapa, or the stern of the waka is in the Eastern Sky, formed by Orion.

      Here in New Zealand we can see both Scorpius and Orion in the sky in the same time and this is the time of the year to do it.

    • Magellanic Clouds. With the Milky Way laying across the horizon, there aren't so many deep sky objects handy to observe. However, we are in the Southern Hemisphere and the spectacular Magellanic Clouds (or Nubeculae Magellani) are high in the sky at this time of the year. Remember they were the sail of the waka o Tama Rereti and this sail is now set. In my first night here in New Zealand, I printed a map of them and started looking onto the southern sky annoyed by a cirrus cloud I thought, only to discover to my delight that it was the Large Magellanic Cloud I was looking at. It is that spectacular and substantial. The large Magellanic Cloud is about 160,000 light years from us and the Small Magellanic Cloud is about 200,000 light years away. To find them, draw a line from the Southern Cross to Achernar. Two thirds from the Southern Cross on each side of the line are the two galaxies. Now far apart, it seems that they collided in a the past, as a paper just published in October 2018 in the Astrophysical Journal Letters supports that idea with data from the Gaia satellite.

    • Inside the Magellanic Clouds are amazing deep sky objects. The Large Magellanic Cloud was host galaxy to a supernova (SN 1987A), the brightest observed in over four centuries, co discovered independently by Ian Shelton and Oscar Duhalde at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile on February 24, 1987, and within the same 24 hours by the legendary Albert Jones in New Zealand. Albert Jones was the first astronomer in the world that made 500,000 observations and he could distinguish about one twentieth of a magnitude, whereas most people can distinguish about one tenth of magnitude changes.

      The Large Magellanic Cloud is home of Tarantula Nebula that gets its name from its resemblance to a huge spider. Tarantula Nebula is very luminous, so great that if it were as close to Earth as the Orion Nebula, the Tarantula Nebula would cast visible shadows. In fact it is the most active starburst region known in the Local Group of galaxies.

      The Small Magellanic Cloud is on the other side of the imaginary line that goes from Achernar to the Southern cross. Recent research suggest a giant piece broke off the Small Magellanic Cloud in South-Eastern part of the galaxy, which goes toward the Large Magellanic Cloud at a speed of 64 kilometers per second and that the Small Magellanic Cloud may in fact be split in two, with a smaller section of this galaxy being behind the main part of the SMC (as seen from Earth's perspective), and separated by about 30,000 light years. The reason for this might be due to a past interaction with the LMC splitting the SMC, and it is believed now that the two sections are still moving apart. The smaller remnant of the Small Magellanic Cloud is now called the Mini Magellanic Cloud, a MiniMe of a galaxy.

      About 15 times closer than the Small Magellanic Cloud but on the same line of sight is my favourite star cluster 47 Tucanae, the most beautiful globular cluster, rival of Omega Centauri.

    • Pegasus. To the North, the great horse of Pegasus is flying through the sky. Andromeda is in the sky too and if we could only see it from Wellington... but even if we did it would be like a smidgen, since is very close to the horizon.

    • All the stars that we touched briefly on, will come back in a year's time in the same formation. We cannot really perceive the proper motion of the stars, it takes them thousands of years to visibly shift positions (well maybe except Barnards' Star). So we are now looking at the same constellations as our ancestors did thousands of years ago (maybe 3 or 4,000 years ago). That's the reason why the stars were used to mark seasons and navigate, their patterns remain constant for thousands of years. What changes the sky and makes every year different are mostly the planets, and sometimes other visitors like comets or asteroids.

    • On the planetary realm. At the beginning of the month Jupiter and Mercury will be low in the west at dusk, setting toward the southwest 1.5 hours after the sun. Orange Mars is in Capricornus north of overhead at dusk. Midway between Mars and Jupiter is Saturn in Sagittarius. Jupiter sets earlier each night as we move to the far side of the sun from it. By mid-month it is lost in the twilight. Mercury holds its position in the west before disappearing late in November when it passes between us and the sun. A thin crescent moon will be near Mercury and Jupiter on the 9th. At the end of the month Saturn and Mars are the only naked-eye planets in the evening sky. The moon will be near Saturn on the 11th and 12th and close to Mars on the 16th. Venus rises a little south of east 50 minutes before the sun at the beginning of the month; more than 1.5 hours before sunrise at the end. It is a long thin crescent in a telescope and big binoculars.

    • Phases of the Moon. The month starts with the Moon at Last Quarter, then New Moon is on the 8th, followed by First Quarter on 16 November and full Moon on the 23rd.

    • And with this, I wish you a great November, good night and clear skies from Space Place at Carter Observatory in Wellington New Zealand.

    The night sky for October 2018

    Thu, 11/10/2018 - 10:00
    Northern Hemisphere

    The Night Sky

    Ian Morison tells us what we can see in the Northern Hemisphere night sky during October 2018.

    The Planets
    • Jupiter - Jupiter can be seen low in the west soon after sunset at the start of the month. It shines at magnitude -1.8 (falling to -1.7 during the month) and has a disk some 32.6 (falling to 31.4) arc seconds across. Jupiter's equatorial bands, sometimes the Great Red Spot and up to four of its Gallilean moons could be visible in a small telescope but its low elevation will greatly hinder our view.

    • Saturn - Saturn will be visible in the south-east at an elevation of ~14 degrees after sunset at the beginning of October. Its disk has an angular size of 16.5 arc seconds falling to 15.7 during the month. Its brightness reduces from +0.5 to +0.6 magnitudes as the month progresses. The rings were at their widest last year but are still well open and spanning ~2.5 times the size of Saturn's globe. Saturn is moving slowly eastwards in Sagittarius. Sadly, atmospheric dispersion will greatly hinder our view and it might be worth considering purchasing the ZWO Atmospheric Dispersion Corrector to counteract its effects.

    • Mercury - Mercury (shining at magnitude -0.2 and with an angular diameter of ~6 arc seconds) might just be spotted very low in the west at the very end of the month and binoculars could well be needed - but please do not use them until after the Sun has set. Look up and to the left of where the Sun has set as its angular separation from the Sun is not great.

    • Mars - Mars, now racing eastwards in Capricornus, made its closest approach to Earth since 2003 on the night of July 30th/31st. It can be seen due south shining at a magnitude of -1.3 around 9 pm at the start of October but this falls to -0.6 by month's end when it is due south at ~8 pm. Its angular size is 16 arc seconds at the start of October but this falls to 12 arc seconds by November. With a small telescope it should be possible to spot details, such as Syrtis Major, on its salmon-pink surface. From the UK, it will only reach an elevation of ~14 degrees when due south and so, sadly, the atmosphere will hinder our view. Another reason for purchasing a ZWO Atmospheric Dispersion corrector? A superb program WinJUPOS can be used to find what should be visible on any night.

    • Venus - Venus is not visible from the UK this month but will be seen low in the east just before sunrise by the middle of next month.

    • Highlights
    • October - still worth observing Mars. Mars came to its closest opposition to Earth since 2003 on the 27th July but, sadly its elevation has conspired to limit our views. From the UK its maximum elevation when on the meridian is only 14 degrees when observed from a latitude of +52 degrees. It angular size at the start of October is still 16 arc seconds so it is still worth looking for details on the surface now that the dust storm that covered much of the surface in June and July has subsided. The free program WinJUPOS will show you what should be visible on the Martian surface.

    • October - a good month to observe Uranus with binoculars or a small telescope. Uranus comes into opposition - when it is nearest the Earth - on the 23rd of October, so will be well placed both this month and next. Its magnitude is +5.7 so Uranus, with a disk just 3.7 arc seconds across, is easily spotted in binoculars lying in the constellation Aries close to the borders of Cetus and Pisces. It rises to an elevation of ~47 degrees when due south. Given a small telescope it will appear as a small turquoise coloured disk. On the night of closest approach, it will lie up to the left of a near Full Moon - whose glare might make it hard to spot!

    • October - still a good month to observe Neptune with a small telescope. Neptune came into opposition - when it is nearest the Earth - on the 7th of September, so will still be well placed this month. Its magnitude is +7.9 so Neptune, with a disk just 2.3 arc seconds across, is easily spotted in binoculars lying in the constellation Aquarius up to the left of Lambda Aquarii as shown on the charts. It rises to an elevation of ~27 degrees when due south. Given a telescope of 8 inches or greater aperture and a dark transparent night (around New Moon on the 9th) it should even be possible to spot its moon Triton.

    • October - early morning: find a Comet with binoculars. In the early hours of a clear morning one should be able, using binoculars, to spot the comet Giacobini-Zinner arching across the heavens as shown on the chart. It was discovered by Michael Giacobini in December 1900, but then 're-discovered' by Ernst Zinner 6.5 years later. Its nucleus is about 2 km across.

    • October - evening: find the 'Coathanger'. Looking upwards after dark you should spot the three stars making up the 'Summer Triangle'. The lowest is Altair in Aquilla, up to its right is Vega in Lyra and over to its left is Deneb in Cygnus. With binoculars sweep upwards about one third of the way from Altair towards Vega. You should spot a nice asterism, formally 'Brocchi's Cluster' but usually called the Coathanger. It is formed of a straight line of six stars below which is a 'hook' of four stars. A pretty object!

    • October 11th - after sunset: Jupiter below a thin crescent Moon. If clear after sunset and given a very low western horizon one should be able to see Jupiter setting in the West down to the left of a very thin crescent Moon. Binoculars might well be needed to cut through the twilight, but please do not use them until after the Sun has set.

    • October 14th - after sunset: Saturn to the left of a waxing crescent Moon. If clear after sunset and looking southwest, one should be able to see Saturn over to the left of a waxing crescent Moon.

    • October 18 - evening: Mars close to the first quarter Moon. During the evening of the 18th, Mars, in the south, will be seen close to the third quarter Moon. A nice photo opportunity perhaps?

    • Learn the Mare on the Moon. Why not use the annotated image of the full Moon to learn the locations of the Moon's Mare. You can see some of them with your unaided eye and binoculars will enable you to spot them all.

    Southern Hemisphere

    We welcome back a familiar voice for our long-term listeners - Haritina Mogosanu from the Carter Research Center in New Zealand speaks about the Southern Hemisphere night sky during October 2018.

    Southern Hemisphere

  • Introduction.

    Welcome to October, this is the New Zealand Night Sky and I am Haritina Mogosanu from Space Place at Carter Observatory. It's great to be back on the Jodcast with more stories and wonders of the southern hemisphere's sky.

    • The Planets. It's been the winter of the planets in the Southern Hemisphere and spring has continued the theme. October is still offering a great chance to see many of the fantastic planetary sights that we've become accustomed to over the winter. The start of October sees the Sun setting just after 7:30 in the evening as the nights are starting to get shorter and daylight savings has made astronomers stay up an hour extra to view the night sky.

    • Venus, Jupiter and Mercury. The early evening sky is dominated first by Venus and then by Jupiter as darkness falls. Both of the planets start the month in Libra with Venus heading towards the Sun in Virgo by the end of the month. Jupiter is joined by Mercury from the 27 Oct for a few days, though will be a real challenge to see very low on the horizon just after the Sun has set at about 15 degrees so Kiwis will have to head to the coast or climb up some of the high hills to have a chance of a fleeting view of Mercury. Unfortunately the situation is the same for Jupiter, the planet that has been with us since autumn is getting lower and lower in the sky and will make for challenging viewing.

    • Saturn, Neptune and Mars. Marching up the ecliptic, Saturn is still in Sagittarius and its rings are at a great tilt to view them. A modest telescope and good seeing should reveal the Cassini division. Also in Sagittarius is Pluto, though at a magnitude of 14.3 it's going to be quite a challenge to see unless you've got your hands on a bigger telescope. And at around 0.1 arcseconds across it's only going to look like a faint star. The dominant planet of the night sky remains Mars, in Capricornus, and at -0.7 magnitude by the end of October it is still going to be very bright and easy to spot - even if you've got to put up with a lot of light pollution. By the end of October, Mars is around 114 million kilometres away which is considerably further away than it is at the start of the month which is 89 million kilometres, showing how fast Earth and Mars are separating. The start of the month will be great for viewing Mars - as it will still be close enough to make out some detail. That is if the seeing is right and the dust storm that silenced the rover Opportunity has long subsided (and hopefully we'll hear from Opportunity by October). The evening sky has one more planet for the keen astronomer with binoculars or telescopes and that's Neptune, the eighth planet from the Sun, which we can find in Aquarius. At 7.8 magnitude it will be easy to spot and will appear as a very small bluish disk. Neptune is a long way away at over 4.3 billion kilometres that is 242 light minutes or about four light hours.

    • Deep Sky Objects. This time of the year is one of my favourite for viewing deep sky objects and a great place to start is with the Southern Cross and work your way up the Milky Way. Or the other way around. To find the Southern Cross, turn away from the ecliptic and just follow the Milky Way all the way to the two pointers, Alpha and Beta Centauri. We are so lucky in here that we can see the Milky Way. There are some great nebulae in it and really beautiful open clusters. In the Southern Cross is one of the most fantastic clusters in the night sky, the Jewel Box Cluster (also known as NGC 4755). This great little cluster has three stars in a line that look a bit like a traffic light, two blue and one red in the middle. The reddish looking star is a red supergiant about 19 times the mass of the Sun. To the right of the Southern Cross is the huge Omega Centauri globular cluster, which at a magnitude of 3.7 can be seen by the naked eye. Omega centauri is the competitor to 47 Tucanae globular cluster, which is not located in the Milky Way but in Toucana in the south celestial circumpolar part of the sky along with the Magellanic Clouds. Back to the Milky Way, and following up past Alpha Centauri, there's the sting of Scorpius which is home to the Cat's Paw Nebula (also known as NGC 6334). It's quite faint but some of the nebula can be seen - astrophotographers will get a lot of detail. Just up the Milky Way from the sting is M7, also known as Ptolemy Cluster. This amazing cluster is visible with the naked eye but through a reasonable telescope it's very impressive against the backdrop of the star clouds. The cluster has about 80 stars in it. Towards the horizon from M7 is the other amazing Southern Hemisphere site, the Milky Way Kiwi.

    • Milky Way Kiwi. Right at the center of the Milky Way, a spectacular bird guards the center of our galaxy. This is the Milky Way Kiwi, a shape made from dark dust within our own galaxy. More than ten years ago astrophotographers from New Zealand were taking snapshots of the night sky. One of them looked at the pictures and realised that the dark patch known in the Northern Hemisphere as the dark horse, being upside down here, looked just like a great galactic kiwi bird. But as I realised later while travelling, you either have to be from New Zealand or have friends in New Zealand to know what a kiwi bird looks like. The Milky Way Kiwi is my absolute favourite object in the sky and I once saw it with the naked eye from Lake Tekapo in the South Island. And if you were wondering, the direction of the supermassive black hole at the centre of our galaxy is right on the top of the head of the Milky Way kiwi, just like a jewel on a crown .

    • The Moon. Since I talked about my favourite object in the sky, the Milky Way Kiwi, I will also mention my least favourite object in the sky, the Moon because it casts too much light at night, but hey people drove on it so that actually makes the Moon very cool apart from the light situation. The Moon here is obviously upside down to the Northern hemisphere and according to New Zealand kids has a big rabbit inside it. You can see its ears are Mare Fecunditatis and Mare Nectaris the head is Mare Tranquillitatis and the tummy is Mare Serenitatis. Behold the rabbit hole at Mare Crisium. Not only that there is this rabbit inside the Moon but the Moon itself is to be found on the northern part of the sky as everything else near the ecliptic in this hemisphere, and facing the ecliptic, east is to the right and west is to the left. That makes the shadows in the morning look like the evening shadows from the other hemisphere and it feels like morning in the evening and evening in the morning until the brain engages back. So if you ever come visit us, don't let them tell you it's only jetlag.

    • This concludes our Jodcast for October 2018 from Space Place at Carter Observatory. Thank you to the amazing Sam Leske of Milky Way Kiwi who contributed to the content. Good night and have a great October.